In selecting the personalities to be included in a history of Whitwell, the choice becomes an arbitrary one certain names are passed on easily from one generation to another while others achieve a notoriety which is comparatively short lived. Space has determined the number of names to be included.
Personalities selected include clergymen, sportsmen, artists, professional people and ordinary workers, each of whom has in one way or another, added to the history of the parish.
The names of other personalities appear elsewhere in the book but perhaps those, who through lack of space have been omitted, will long remain in our memories.
Jim was born in Whitwell and lived for many years in the old Teapot Yard. He remained a lifelong member of the church, where he became a server under Archdeacon Crosse, who ultimately imparted a great influence upon Jim's life. He was a member of the Church Lads Brigade, a Sunday School teacher, a Sidesman and a member of the Parochial Church Council.
During the Second World War he served in the army with the Mounted Artillery in North Africa, Sicily and India, afterwards becoming a member of the British Legion.
Jim followed his father into the family business of Hairdresser/Tobacconist/Fancy Goods and together with his wife Ethel, ran this business for 20 years.
Jim was a well-known local artist who, over the years, completed many fine studies of Old Whitwell. His paintings and sketches can be found hanging in many homes, as well as appearing on the cover of Parish Magazines and on souvenir brochures.
In 1981, he won the 'Henry Spencer' award for his painting of the inside of St. Lawrence Church and this picture now resides in the USA. Jim has left behind a wealth of history in his pictures.
Eliza Jane Bell lived to the ripe old age of 102 years and many are indebted to her for the tape recordings of life in Old Whitwell, which are being handed down to posterity. She had a remarkable memory and could clearly recall events, which had happened some 95 years earlier, in the mid 19th century.
Born at Leabrooks, her father moved to Whitwell, when she was seven, to work in the coal mines - her recorded voice describes vividly those early days of the coalminers.
One of her clearest recollections is, as a child of eight years, walking daily from Bakestone Moor to Renishaw to help a sick aunt. 'My auntie was ill and, as she had very little money, my mother used to make me go and help her out. There used to be a lot of tramps on the road at that time and I was scared sometimes. I was always glad when I reached Barlborough and had some company'.
Another thing she recalls is racing home from school every evening to warm a neighbour's dinner - for twopence a week pocket-money.
Mr Gallagher was born in County Galway, Ireland, 5th April, 1895. After completing his Teacher Training at Dublin College he took a teaching post at Whitwell Junior School on 17th January, 1921, when Canon Mason was Rector of Whitwell.
During his teaching career of 40 years, all at Whitwell, up to his retirement at the age of 65 years in 1961, he worked with five different Head Teachers: Mr Robert Ellis, Mr Dix, Mr Harding, Mr Stone and Mr Reece.
Mr Gallagher was the Worksop Guardian's Whitwell correspondent for 50 years reporting the activities of all the many village organisation, as well as weddings and funerals.
The 'Uncle Robin' column was already established at the 'Guardian' when Mr Gallagher joined the paper. He kept the column going and became 'Uncle Robin' keeping his identity a secret for many years.
Sarah Luke reached her l00th birthday in January l988. Born in Teapot Yard, she was the only girl in a family of eight children. Her father, William Dolby, was probably the first person to die in an accident at Whitwell Colliery, when she was about five - the family was split up as a result and her mother Ann moved away to become a housekeeper.
Sarah went to a home in London, where she attended school- she was proud to have studied French and swimming. When she was 16, she went to Canada to work as a nanny, returning to England to marry, a few years later.
Sarah Luke had her first experience of a home with electricity, when she was moved at the age of 75 into an 'Old folks' bungalow.
'J.T.' is the author of more than 100 all-action Western books -'He likes his heroes to be real heroes and his villains to be dead ones'.
Born at Hodthorpe in 1928 and educated in the village schools, Jack spent 1211, years in the Army Veterinary Corps - where he hardly ever saw a horse, working with dogs most of the time- After demobilisation, he ran a fish and chip shop, then became a postman, until he was able to earn enough as an author to concentrate exclusively on the Wild West.
Unlikely though his background is, Jack is unquestionably an authority on the American Civil War, Western weaponry, gun fighting and tropical fish - he has 28 fish tanks at home.
His study might well be mistaken for an armoury of the Alamo. One wall is covered with violent weapons - 29 revolvers and automatics, two machine guns and two Winchesters (all but three by courtesy of the Yokohama Model Gun Company), two tomahawks, a 12ft bullwhip, a Bowie knife, an Arkansas toothpick and a long-bladed, spear-pointed knife.
His fans are numbered in tens of thousands and he receives fan mail from all over the world.
John William Streets was 31 years old when he volunteered for the army in the early days of the First World War. He was killed at the Battle of Somme two years later.
He was one of a family of 12 children born and bred in Whitwell. He attended the local school and later took a course in French, which he passed with honours. He worked at Whitwell Colliery, where he found 'the miner's laborious routine uncongenial' but he felt duty-bound to work there to help support a large family.
He was a Sunday School teacher in the Wesleyan Church but many will best remember him as an artist and especially as a poet. Most of his poetry was completed in an intense period of writing between September, 1914 and July, 1916. His most notable work was published as a book, which included a collection of sonnets, called 'The Undying Splendour'. A biography of John William Streets has been drafted but not yet published.
Dan Harding became headmaster of Whitwell Schools in 1934 and he died in 1950, the same year as that other esteemed headmaster, Robert Ellis.
The following incident is interesting:
'During the First World War, when the Germans overran Belgium, the people of Bruges took from the Church of the Sacred Blood the beautiful casket holding the precious relic and hid it under rubbish in the crypt. At the end of the war a young English corporal was left, with a number of men, to help the people put their city to rights. At last came the day when, with great ceremony and thanksgiving, they took the precious relic from under the rubbish and installed it in its rightful position in the church'.
The ceremony was watched by the English soldiers and their corporal - who was Dan Harding.
Born at 80 Welbeck Street, Whitwell on 15th April, 1901, Joe was renowned as a champion professional billiards and snooker player, as also was his brother Fred.
Joe set the official world record snooker break of 147 against Willie Smith at Leicester Square Hall, City of Westminster on 22nd January, 1955. He also compiled the record championship billiard break (under amended baulk line rules) of 1,784 in 1936.
Joe was also well-known for his exhibition matches - he raised £125,000 for War Charities. One remarkable incident concerned a planned charity match at The Marples, Sheffield. Joe was unable to travel from Hull that evening, rather fortunately for him, because the building suffered a direct bomb hit the same night.
Joe was unbeaten as a billiards and snooker champion. On winning his first world title, he received payment of £6:10:0d., which compares unfavourably with the £105,000, which will be paid to the winner in 1989.
Headmaster and teacher for 36 years, Robert Ellis, JP was affectionately referred to, by all who knew him, as 'The Gaffer'.
He was brought to the Manor House as a pupil, aged six, and retained connection with the building until his death in 1950. He was christened, confirmed and married at Whitwell.
His long list of appointments included: Organist/Choirmaster, 25 years; Sunday School Superintendent, 25 years; Churchwarden, 6 years; Member of Diocesan Conference; Member of Ruri-Decanal Conference; Committee Member, Derby Training College; Councillor, Clowne RDC; Member, Worksop Board of Guardians; Councillor, Whitwell Parish Council; President of the Old Boys' FC; President of the British Legion Band; Actuary, Yorkshire Penny Bank, 25 years. He also served as a magistrate.
Willie Lowde was born at Clowne in 1821, but came to Whitwell on marriage and lived in the end house on East Parade, opposite the Vaults Hotel. He began work as a servant with John Morris on the Creswell side of the parish and eventually became a grocer, provision dealer, draper and a general dealer. He is also mentioned in several trade directories as a druggist.
He promoted a private chapel on High Street and held an annual gala near the corner of the cricket field to raise funds. A report appears in the chapter on 'Churches' of the huge gala, which he organised on Belph Common in June, 1875, when 1200 people attended.
He had two daughters, both became schoolteachers; one of them married Mr E.C. Tinker of the Vaults Hotel.
The Rev. Thomas Morven Busby died, aged 76 years, at his home in North Transvaal, South Africa. He was born in Victoria Terrace, Spring Hill on 3rd November, 1900. After leaving the village school he worked at Creswell Colliery until 1922, when he went to Cambridge and Dorchester Theological College. He was ordained in Portsmouth Cathedral in 1928.
He held a curacy at Southsea for two years before going to South West Australia to be Rector of Narambeen. He left there in 1936 to become Rector of Duivelskloof, South Africa, where he completed his ministry, apart from six years as chaplain to the North African Forces in Italy. He retired at 70 years of age but still helped with the ministry when requested, as he did back in his home parish, when he returned on leave. Many parishioners will remember his excellent Feast Sunday sermon preached at the High Hill service.
'Bill' was a well-known singer and comedian; he won a number of local talent competitions and raised large sums of money for charity.
A miner, he was a former President of the Whitwell Branch of the NUM and Chairman of the Parish Council in 1960. He was President of Hodthorpe WMC from 1953-55 and was elected to the Executive of the Club and Institute Union. Bill sang in St. Martin's Church Choir and with the Portland Male Voice Choir; he was a member of the RAOB. He attended Ruskin College, where he studied Economics. He was a pigeon fancier and acted as Secretary to the Hodthorpe Homing Society.
Bill was popular with children and was always ready to have fun with them. One incident concerned a birthday celebration; on his way home from Hodthorpe Club, he invited eight children to his birthday party - he gave them a kipper each and some bread to dip in the gravy.
Mr Stone, better known as 'Bobby' Stone was a familiar figure in his policeman's uniform, before the Second World War. His pencilled moustache was guaranteed to strike fear into the hearts of the most hardened children. He retired from the police force to take up farming, first at Marsh Lane, then at the Birks and finally at Ratcliffe. On the outbreak of war he was recalled to the Police Reserve.
Many will recall him driving his herd of cows along the road pushing his 'bike' and dressed in uniform, and often in summer just in shirt and trousers supported with braces. The anecdotes told about him are numerous, most of them quite humorous. One piece of evidence given in court when he was attending concerned an overcrowded bus, when it was stated that 'the passengers looked like a cart load of turnips with heads sticking out of the windows everywhere'.
The Rev Sternberg belonged to a family rich in legal and medical learning. His father was a solicitor. He went to S. Africa on account of his father's health but his father died soon after their arrival. Under the care of his mother and uncle (Dr Carter), he received early tuition at the diocesan public school for boys in Natal and he matriculated there. He was to have been articled in law but he preferred the church.
Appointed Rector of Whitwell in 1929, he remained in office until his death on Sunday, 15th September, 1957. He was a learned man, studying at Durham University and qualifying as a Master of Arts, a Bachelor of Civil Law and a Doctor of Law. He served in the First World War, where he met Dr Lawson, who was instrumental in his moving to Whitwell.
He was ordained curate at Burton-on-Trent, then served at St Thomas', Derby and it was to Allestree, Derby that he returned after the war. He was an external examiner in Civil Law for Durham University and an examiner of Lay Readers for Derby. His life of dedicated service allowed time for representation on the Clowne RCD.
In 1931, he was offered an overseas bishopric, which he turned down.
Perhaps the best tribute is the one made by the Rural Dean (Fr Speakman) soon after the Rector's death: 'He was a man of scholarship, combined with modesty and simplicity; strength combined with gentleness; a natural charm and friendliness that drew others to him; and a sense of duty to both parish and people. He brought into our common life a touch of old-world courtesy. We shall remember him in the larger life of the Deanery, not for anything he said but for what he was - a truly great man'.
A popular and well-respected ex-serviceman. In later years he was well-known as a lamplighter and caretaker, and also for his humorous stories. Typical was the one about working overtime in the churchyard on 'stocktaking' and being 'one short'- the Rector wouldn't allow him to leave until they were all accounted for.
Frank served in both the First and Second World Wars and needless to say he was born of a military family. The career of his father, Walter, though possibly not so well known is worthy of record.
Walter Beswick enlisted in the 26th Foot Regiment on Sunday, 8th May, 1877 at the age of 18'/, years. He joined at Chesterfield, served for a short period in Ireland and was then drafted to India until 1883.
He was discharged 'with excellent character' on 8th May, 1889 after six years with the Colours and six years with the Reserve.
On the outbreak of the First World War, aged 57 years, he enlisted in the Army Service Corps on 3rd July, 1915 and was sent to France in July, 1916, but owing to the hardships of the campaign, he returned to England in the November and was discharged the following month as 'no longer physically fit for War Service'. He was described as of 'good character' and 'a good packer and loader, sober and reliable'.
On 14th January, 1904 he was working at Nunnery Colliery, when he saved the life of a man buried under several tons of coal. The Manager said 'The action was a fearless display of heroism and I may say that this was not the first time that the man has displayed courage of a similar nature. He is a man of exceedingly steady habits and a thoroughly reliable workman'.
The Home Secretary was approached by Mr B. Langley, MP for the award of the Albert Medal, which was not granted. He did, however, receive the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem at an investiture by the Prince of Wales in 1905 at Marlborough House, where the Duke of Portland was also present.
One of Robert Milnes' treasures was a photograph of the Wesley Choral Society, taken in 1902, when he had just taken over from his father as conductor.
Robert was the second son of Charles Milnes, who was a wheelwright and joiner: the family home was in the Manor Cottages, High Street. Robert attended the Infant School at the Old Hall, where he was taught by Miss Johncock, before moving to the new school in the Square to become a pupil of Headmaster, Robert Ellis.
On leaving school, he was apprenticed to his father and learned joinery, painting, decorating and signwriting. In the early years of the First World War, trade was slack and he went to work at Whitwell Colliery, leaving later to join the Royal Engineers and returning again after demobilisation. He then started his own business as a joiner, painter, decorator and signwriter.
His first introduction to music was on a small harmonium in his father's home; he was in his father's choir at the Portland Street Methodist Church and first conducted the Portland Wesleyan Choir, when he was 18. Apart from the war years, he remained as organist and choirmaster.
At the Methodist Church, he formed and conducted the Aeolian Gleemen, who broadcast in 1926 and later the Portland Male Voice Choir, who also broadcast. For some years he trained and conducted the Whitwell W.I. choir.
When asked in 1972 if he was going to continue as choirmaster, 'Certainly', he replied, 'something interesting to do is one of the finest ways of being happy in old age'. He died on 6th May, 1974 aged 89 years.
Les was born on 5th April, 1921 the youngest of 13 children. His cricketing career started at the age of 16. when he joined Whitwell Colliery CC in the Bassetlaw League. His record then reads:
1947 First County game against Kent at Dore and Totley
1948 Joined Worksop Town CC
1951 Toured India with the Commonwealth Touring Team, but returned home early, suffering from an elbow injury
1958} Topped the County Bowling Averages
1958 was a special year for Les; the record reads: 829 overs, 295 maidens, 1572 runs, 143 wickets at an average of 10.99.'
A search of Wisden's back to 1900 shows that no other bowler, having taken 100 wickets, could match this analysis. From 1948 to 1958, Les captured 100 wickets on seven occasions and his total 'bag' of wickets was 1173. His last game for Derbyshire was against Middlesex at Lords. Les carried on playing cricket, first in the Lancashire League and later, for five years in the Bradford League where he took 325 wickets.
Canon George Edward Mason was one of the longer-serving Rectors, holding office for 34 years from 1874. There were many changes in the Parish under his influence and energy, although he spent much of his time on duties elsewhere. He was a frequent visitor to London, he also travelled round the world and published a comprehensive book of his experiences, and visited South Africa on more than one occasion. In fact, he died in Africa after a long spell of ill-health, having resigned the living at Whitwell in 1908.
Whitwell was purely an agricultural village when he arrived, with only a few houses on Bakestone Moor, very few on Larpit Lane and there was no Hodthorpe. The Rectory was uninhabitable, when he arrived, so he lived in apartments. He arranged for the restoration of the Old Rectory by the famous architect, R.L. Pearson, RA - the same combination was responsible for the restoration and reconciliation of All Saint's Chapel, Steetley.
His other endeavours included the enlargement of the Parish Church, the building of St Martin's Church and the opening of day schools at Hodthorpe and Whitwell. Canon Mason kept the canon balls, armour and weapons, from the Civil War skirmish on Whitwell Common, with the idea of opening a village museum.
The Canon Mason screen in the Parish Church is dedicated to his memory and the local lodge of the RAOB was also named after him.
A familiar face as he travelled the parish with his pony and cart selling fresh mussels.
'Yorkie' first came to the village as a pit sinker and worked on the sinking of the first shaft at Whitwell in 1890.
He was a well-known caravan dweller, his first place of residence being on the site of Hodthorpe W.M.C.; he also occupied a site near the Hodthorpe sewage works and later moved into tinker's Yard on Station Road before settling on Whitwell Common, where he established himself as a dealer in scrap.
Archdeacon Crosse, Rector of Whitwell from 1918-28, endeared himself to many of the elderly people in the Parish. He was Rector during a time of great social privation and supported the people during the miners' lock-out of 1921 and the General Strike of 1926. He could truly be described as a champion of the miners' cause.
In 1919, in a letter to 'The Times', he challenged unjust and unfair charges against the Miners' Federation
'The miners are a splendid, independent but, I own, a difficult race of men-and more difficult still will they become, 9 they are not handled more reasonably, alike by the state and public'.
He played a prominent part in the controversy surrounding the 1921 stoppage. Supporting a resolution for a National Day of prayer and Humiliation he said:
'The church was chiefly on the side of the mine-owner in the present dispute and had certainly never taken the stand, that h ought to have done, on the side of those upon whom economic conditions pressed with such hardship. Miners had greatly advanced in their sense of responsibility ... There was no revolutionary motive at their back. They had never had any official encouragement from Official Christianity. Why not a Day of Sympathy as well as of Prayer and Humiliation?'
In a sermon at Chesterfield Parish Church in 1926 he said:
'Remember peace on earth comes to men of good will. Keep steady!
The whole history of the mining industry is too disgraceful for words'.
'Did they understand that men were saying these things? Did they wonder that men sometimes acted with extravagance? Did they know, that the miners were their brethren and were the best and the bravest and the truest of men?
Charles Manners Sutton was Rector of Whitwell from 1786 to 1792. He resigned the living to become Dean of Windsor where he played at cards with Royalty. He was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1805 and stayed in office until 1826. By coincidence the Duke of Portland represented Kings Lynn in Parliament from 1824 to 1826.
The Archbishop's period of office was a momentous one. Among the events which occurred were the Battle of Waterloo and the ending of the 100 Years War in France. The first Factories Act was passed at this time, being an attempt to control child labour, and the process of the Industrial Revolution also began.
Possibly his most difficult involvement was in the threatened divorce of King George IV from Queen Caroline - her death in 1821 resolved the problem.
Hodthorpe born David earned himself the title of 'Fighter of the Night' in a kick-boxing tournament - by flattening 'The Incredible Hulk'. Cpl. Taylor, when based at RAF Marham, was victorious in the very first open contest for exponents of the martial art. His win against 'The Hulk' Croft followed an earlier success in a Birmingham show, where he gained a three-round knock-out over Sugar Ray Hoffman.
A professional cricketer with Derbyshire from 1898 to 1906. The record books in Huddersfield, Bradford and Lancashire are proof of his cricketing ability - ten wickets in an innings and one hundred wickets in a season with a bowling average below ten runs per wicket.
Once when playing against the Gentlemen for the Players, he was run out. On returning to the pavilion he threw his bat across the dressing room and is recorded as saying 'Bloody Gentlemen! Give me a professional any time.' This act most probably brought to a premature end, a promising career as a county cricketer.
Arthur, a miner, was a cycling champion during the 1930's and a member of Dinnington Cycling Club. During training, he was used to cycling to London and back with only a packet of raisins to eat.
The subject of a surprise 'This Is Your Life', held at the Mallet and Chisel, one of his former colleagues, pensioner John Atkinson, cycled from Nottingham for the occasion.
Born in Whitwell in 1891, he was a successful artist, who studied at Sheffield School of Art before moving to Surrey and then spending much of his time in Paris. He concentrated mostly on rural subjects and executed some detailed work on farm buildings and cottages. He won many prizes including the coveted Queen's Prize and 17 of his works are exhibited at the Royal Academy. His work can be seen on birthday cards, in particular 'The Duck Pond' and 'Blossom Time'. He died in 1936.
Attended Netherthorpe Grammar School and obtained his engineering degree at Sheffield University. Served as a Lieutenant Engineer in the Royal Navy in the Second World War and after demobilisation was appointed engineer at the Rhodesian copper mines in 1949. Moved by the plight of the Africans, he returned to England to study theology, later being ordained at Manchester Cathedral. He then returned to S. Africa to undertake missionary work.
Along with J. Stubbins and Sam Malthouse, he figured prominently in the performances of Whitwell Cricket Club in the 1880's - he was made a vice-president in 1881. All three played for Welbeck as well as Whitwell.
'GG' also played for Derbyshire and was selected for the Gentlemen v Australia in 1886, when the team was captained by W.G. Grace.
He was also prominent in the life of the parish; we read of visiting Bishops receiving hospitality at his home. The band playing in his gardens was a feature of Feast Sunday celebrations and the marquee for the local flower shows was regularly erected in 'Mr Walker's field'. He was an Overseer and a Guardian of the Poor.
Started work in the sawmill of Whitwell Colliery and joined the Worksop St John Ambulance Brigade in 1914. In a reserved occupation during the First World War, he regularly cycled to the local hospital to help with the war wounded. He became a Special Constable in 1915. He transferred to the Whitwell (Colliery) Ambulance Division on formation and in 1920 received his home nursing certificate: thereafter his home became like a surgery to the miners. in the Second World War he joined the Observer Corps and by 1962 had completed nearly 50 years as a member of the SJAB - he received one of their highest awards as Serving Brother. Mr Streets died on 6th July, 1972.
Known as the proprietor of 'Ye Olde Curiosity Shop', demolished when the bottle-neck road from the Square on Welbeck Street was widened. He was born in Malthouse Row in April, 1856 and his first job, aged 6, was crow-tenting for Butcher Thompson. At 8 ½ years he went down Waleswood Pit as a pony driver and one of his most vivid recollections of that time was a fight between 'Legge' Holden and 'Tart' Gee, both Whitwell men, for £10 aside at Wales Bar - Holden won in ten rounds; the referee was Mr William Wood of High Street.
He worked at Sloswick's Farm and was errand boy to Joseph Collingham (later at the Boot and Shoe) when he built the Riding School at Welbeck. His last job, as a boy, was to carry the pegs for the Duke, when pegging out the underground passages. He worked on the Worksop to Nottingham railway, helping to excavate the Whitwell tunnel, then worked on the sinking of several colliery shafts around Sheffield, before moving to a boiler works at Newark. In the early 1890's he opened a large fish and game shop in Pontefract and became head engineer of the fire brigade. He had a remarkable experience, attending a pit head fire at Acton Hall Colliery, during the miner's strike, when two miners were shot dead.
He next sailed for Capetown to become second engineer in the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, before taking charge of the engines in the extensive works of Daniell Mills and Sons. He met his wife in Capetown and they were married in the Cathedral there.
They came back to England in 1897 and he returned to Welbeck, this time to work in the newly established poultry yard. He opened the Old Curiosity Shop, one year later, for the sale of bicycles and second-hand goods. In his travels he collected many rare and valuable items, and noted buyers the world over came to do business with him. Describing the state of trade, he was heard to say, 'These Yanks are after the stuff, no matter what the price - chairs bought for £4:10s. are selling for £90' and he gave a knowing wink!
Sam enjoyed a lifelong association with the parish church, where he held office as Churchwarden, Parochial Church Council member, Sidesman, Verger and Sunday School teacher.
For many years he worked voluntarily as caretaker at the Manor Rooms and tended the gardens and grassed areas of the parish church surrounds.
In 1916 Sam joined the Church Lads Brigade and eventually achieved the rank of Captain. He taught boxing to schoolboys and to members of the brigade and often acted as referee in boxing contests.
Sam was also closely associated with the Parish Council and many will remember him as the driver of a County Council road roller.
His life of service was not confined to civilian life, he also served in the Army in the Second World War.
Not least, Sam was known as a keen and successful gardener- he laid and tended the parish church gardens but the garden on High Street is still a tribute to his memory and to the blacksmith's forge which stood on the same site.
Many, many other names are worthy of mention but as stated at the outset, there has to be a limit. Those who served in two World Wars have a strong claim - we are indebted for their service and proud to honour the fallen on plaques within the churches, on the War Memorial and on the Rolls of Honour at the Community Centre.
Other names mentioned at the History Group meetings include: Grace Lamer (artist), John Cook (priest), Peter Gallagher (engineer), Val and Frank Fox (athletics), C. Snell (weight lifter), D. Snell (golf), Dr. Lawson, J. Hardwick (soccer), F. Wheatley (tennis), Nurse Farrell, Nurse Cooper, Mrs Snell, Beckie Kitchen.